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  Annotation States/Entities Rights Affected persons
CRC/C/ETH/CO/4-5 (CRC, 2015)
Observations

III.Main areas of concern and recommendations

A.General measures of implementation (arts. 4, 42 and 44 (6), of the Convention)

The Committee’s previous recommendation

6.While welcoming the State party’s efforts to implement some of the concerns and recommendations made upon the consideration of the State party’s third report in 2006, the Committee notes with regret that some of the recommendations regarding, inter alia, the allocation of resources, data collection, discrimination against children in vulnerable situations, birth registration, trafficking, harmful traditional practices and the administration of juvenile justice have not fully implemented.

  • Ethiopia
  • A6 Context, statistics, budget, civil society
  • A62 Statistics and indicators
  • A63 Budget and resources (for human rights implementation)
  • D27 Prohibition of slavery, trafficking
  • D6 Rights related to name, identity, nationality
  • F34 Children: Juvenile justice
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
  • general
Recommendations

7. The Committee recommends that the State party take all necessary measures to address its previous recommendations.

  • Ethiopia
  • A6 Context, statistics, budget, civil society
  • A62 Statistics and indicators
  • A63 Budget and resources (for human rights implementation)
  • D27 Prohibition of slavery, trafficking
  • D6 Rights related to name, identity, nationality
  • F34 Children: Juvenile justice
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
  • general
Observations

Legislation

8.The Committee regrets the absence of a systematic legislative review in order to bring domestic laws into compliance with the Convention, and is concerned that a comprehensive Children’s Code has not yet been adopted.

  • Ethiopia
  • A41 Constitutional and legislative framework
  • F31 Children: definition; general principles; protection
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
  • general
Recommendations

9.The Committee reiterates its previous recommendation (CRC/C/ETH/CO/3, para. 9) and recommends that the State party bring domestic law into full compliance with the Convention and design and adopt a comprehensive Children’s Code that incorporates all the provisions of the Convention.

  • Ethiopia
  • A41 Constitutional and legislative framework
  • F31 Children: definition; general principles; protection
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
  • general
Observations

Coordination

10.The Committee notes that the Ministry of Women, Children and Youth Affairs is responsible for coordinating the implementation of the Convention and welcomes the commitment of the State party to coordinate and monitor the implementation of the Convention through the establishment of regional bureaux of women, children and youth affairs, as well as executive committees on the Convention at the national, regional, zonal, and woreda levels. However, the Committee regrets the absence of information on the coordination among different bodies and on the human, technical and financial resources provided to these bureaux and executive committees. The Committee regrets also the absence of information on training programmes for the staff of the Ministry, bureaux and executive committees.

  • Ethiopia
  • A44 Structure of the national human rights machinery
  • A45 National Human Rights Institution (NHRI)
  • A53 Professional training in human rights
  • A63 Budget and resources (for human rights implementation)
  • F31 Children: definition; general principles; protection
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
  • general
  • women
Recommendations

11. The Committee recommends that the State party:

(a)Continue its efforts to strengthen coordination and collaboration between the different institutional bodies at the national, regional, zonal and woreda levels to ensure consistency and efficiency of the implementation of policies;

(b) Provide those institutional bodies with the sufficient human and financial resources in order to efficiently carry out their mandate and mission, and develop and implement continuous training programmes on human rights, particularly children’s rights, for their respective staff;

(c) Take all measures to strengthen physical and geographical accessibility to such mechanisms for all children, especially those in vulnerable situations.

  • Ethiopia
  • A44 Structure of the national human rights machinery
  • A45 National Human Rights Institution (NHRI)
  • A53 Professional training in human rights
  • A63 Budget and resources (for human rights implementation)
  • F31 Children: definition; general principles; protection
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
  • general
  • women
Observations

Allocation of resources

12.The Committee, while welcoming the increasing budgetary allocations to the education and health sectors, regrets the lack of information and data relating to the budget specifically allocated to children belonging to the most vulnerable groups of society, including children of ethnic minorities and indigenous populations, children with disabilities, children in street situations, children affected by and/or infected with HIV/AIDS and children living in poverty in rural and remote areas.

  • Ethiopia
  • A6 Context, statistics, budget, civil society
  • A62 Statistics and indicators
  • A63 Budget and resources (for human rights implementation)
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
  • general
  • Indigenous peoples
  • persons living in rural areas
  • persons with disabilities
Recommendations

13. In the light of its 1-day general discussion in 2007 entitled “Resources for the rights of the child — responsibility of the State”, the Committee recommends that the State party:

(a) Ensure the allocation of adequate human, technical and financial resources in all areas affecting children, by paying particular attention to children belonging to vulnerable groups of the population and with the aim of eliminating regional disparities in the implementation of the Convention;

(b)Establish a clear, comprehensive and participatory budgeting process, with specific indicators and mechanisms to monitor and evaluate the adequacy and efficiency of the distribution processes.

  • Ethiopia
  • A6 Context, statistics, budget, civil society
  • A62 Statistics and indicators
  • A63 Budget and resources (for human rights implementation)
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
  • general
  • Indigenous peoples
  • persons living in rural areas
  • persons with disabilities
Recommendations

Data collection

14.The Committee reiterates its previous recommendations (CRC/C/ETH/CO/3, para. 19) that the State party develop and implement a comprehensive framework of data collection that covers all areas of the Convention and is disaggregated by age, sex, disability, geographic location, ethnic origin and socioeconomic background in order to facilitate an analysis on the situation of all children, particularly those in situations of vulnerability.

  • Ethiopia
  • A6 Context, statistics, budget, civil society
  • A62 Statistics and indicators
  • F31 Children: definition; general principles; protection
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
Observations

Independent monitoring

15.While welcoming the establishment of desks and regional offices for children in both the Ethiopian Human Rights Commission and the Institute of the Ombudsman, the Committee regrets the absence of information on their human, technical and financial resources in order to ensure that they discharge their mandate in an efficient and independent manner, as well as on the number of complaints received and investigations conducted. The Committee is also concerned that children can only lodge a complaint through their parents or guardians, a situation that is particularly problematic when family members are the perpetrators of children’s rights violations.

  • Ethiopia
  • A45 National Human Rights Institution (NHRI)
  • A54 Awareness raising and dissemination
  • B51 Right to an effective remedy
  • F31 Children: definition; general principles; protection
  • F32 Children: family environment and alternative care
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
  • general
Recommendations

16. In the light of its general comment No. 2 (2002) on the role of independent national human rights institutions in the promotion and protection of the rights of the child, the Committee recommends that the State party:

(a) Ensure the proper functioning of the Ethiopian Human Rights Commission and the Institute of the Ombudsman in compliance with the Principles relating to the status of national institutions for the promotion and protection of human rights (Paris Principles), and guarantee their independence in discharging their mandates to monitor and investigate cases of human rights violations against children;

(b) Take all appropriate measures, including through awareness-raising programmes, in order to ensure that all children are fully informed about their rights and the independent complaint mechanisms that may protect those rights and may provide children with remedies;

(c) Ensure that children can independently access those complaints mechanisms and institutions.

  • Ethiopia
  • A45 National Human Rights Institution (NHRI)
  • A54 Awareness raising and dissemination
  • B51 Right to an effective remedy
  • F31 Children: definition; general principles; protection
  • F32 Children: family environment and alternative care
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
  • general
Observations

Dissemination, training and awareness-raising

17.The Committee notes with satisfaction the efforts made by the State party in disseminating the Convention through its publications and public events, and welcomes the incorporation of children’s rights training in the regular training courses of the Ethiopian Federal Police university colleges and training institutions. However, the Committee remains concerned that the general awareness of the existence and importance of the Convention remains low, particularly in rural and remote areas and among vulnerable groups of the society.

  • Ethiopia
  • A41 Constitutional and legislative framework
  • A53 Professional training in human rights
  • A54 Awareness raising and dissemination
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • general
Recommendations

18. The Committee recommends that the State party strengthen measures regarding dissemination of and training on the Convention for all relevant professional groups in several local languages, and undertake child rights awareness-raising initiatives to reach vulnerable groups, including those living in rural and remote areas.

  • Ethiopia
  • A41 Constitutional and legislative framework
  • A53 Professional training in human rights
  • A54 Awareness raising and dissemination
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • general
Observations

Cooperation with civil society

19.The Committee is seriously concerned at the highly restrictive environment for non-governmental organizations and civil society organizations through the imposition of administrative barriers to registration, low thresholds of foreign financial support for local non-governmental organizations, and the strict delimitation of authorized activities for international non-governmental organizations by prohibiting their involvement in numerous areas affecting children, such as: child sexual abuse and exploitation; female genital mutilation and cutting and other harmful traditional practices; the rights of children with disabilities; and the rights of children in conflict with the law. The Committee also deeply regrets information on the State party’s interference in the work of the Charities and Societies Agency, the heavy restrictions imposed on non-governmental organizations and civil society organizations in accessing conflict-affected regions, detention centres and alternative care institutions, and the cases of harassment, arrest and prosecution of human rights activists.

  • Ethiopia
  • A41 Constitutional and legislative framework
  • A45 National Human Rights Institution (NHRI)
  • A61 Cooperation with civil society
  • B51 Right to an effective remedy
  • B52 Impunity
  • D26 Conditions of detention
  • D51 Administration of justice & fair trial
  • F31 Children: definition; general principles; protection
  • F32 Children: family environment and alternative care
  • F33 Children: protection against exploitation
  • F34 Children: Juvenile justice
  • F35 Children in armed conflict
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
  • general
  • human rights defenders
  • persons deprived of their liberty
  • women
Recommendations

20. The Committee strongly recommends that the State:

(a) Repeal the Charities and Societies Proclamation No. 621/2009 that obstructs the work of international non-governmental organizations for the promotion and protection of all human rights, including children’s rights, and those proclamations that impose restrictions on the funding of local non-governmental organizations from foreign sources;

(b) Take all appropriate measures to ensure that human rights and humanitarian organizations and agencies are provided with unhindered access to conflict-affected areas, prisons, police stations and alternative care institutions;

(c) Ensure that international and national non-governmental organizations can operate freely and that instances of intimidation and harassment of human rights defenders and civil society activists are promptly and independently investigated, and those responsible for such abuses are held accountable.

  • Ethiopia
  • A41 Constitutional and legislative framework
  • A45 National Human Rights Institution (NHRI)
  • A61 Cooperation with civil society
  • B51 Right to an effective remedy
  • B52 Impunity
  • D26 Conditions of detention
  • D51 Administration of justice & fair trial
  • F31 Children: definition; general principles; protection
  • F32 Children: family environment and alternative care
  • F33 Children: protection against exploitation
  • F34 Children: Juvenile justice
  • F35 Children in armed conflict
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
  • general
  • human rights defenders
  • persons deprived of their liberty
  • women
Observations

Children’s rights and the business sector

21.While acknowledging the positive steps taken by the State party to enhance development and combat poverty, through the implementation of the 2005–2010 Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty and the Growth Transformation Plan 2010–2014, the Committee is concerned about the adverse impact of large-scale investments and development projects on children’s rights. In particular, the Committee is concerned about the forced relocation of indigenous families, including Anuak and Nuer, that took place in mid-2010, particularly in the regions of Gambella, Benishangul-Gumuz, Somali and Afar, due to agricultural planning strategies and investments.

  • Ethiopia
  • A41 Constitutional and legislative framework
  • A42 Institutions & policies - General
  • A61 Cooperation with civil society
  • B51 Right to an effective remedy
  • B52 Impunity
  • B6 Business & Human Rights
  • E21 Right to an adequate standard of living - general
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
  • general
  • women
Recommendations

22. In the light of its general comment No. 16 (2013) on State obligations regarding the impact of the business sector on children’s rights, the Committee recommends that the State party:

(a) Ensure that the elaboration and implementation of development strategies and projects involve regular consultations with the affected populations, in particular indigenous, pastoral and semi-pastoral families and their children, the rights and needs of which should always take precedence over financial gain;

(b) Prevent and halt all relocation plans that do not enjoy the consent of the affected populations, and ensure that for those relocations that are voluntary, the affected populations are provided with adequate and suitable living conditions;

(c) Develop and implement a comprehensive framework on business conduct in order to ensure that business activities do not have an adverse impact on human rights or endanger environmental and other standards, in particular those relating to children and women, and impose sanctions and provide remedies when violations occur.

  • Ethiopia
  • A41 Constitutional and legislative framework
  • A42 Institutions & policies - General
  • A61 Cooperation with civil society
  • B51 Right to an effective remedy
  • B52 Impunity
  • B6 Business & Human Rights
  • E21 Right to an adequate standard of living - general
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
  • general
  • women
Observations

B.General principles (arts. 2, 3, 6 and 12 of the Convention)

Non-discrimination

23.While welcoming the positive steps taken by the State party to combat discrimination, such as the National Action Plan for Gender Equality 2006–2010, the Committee expresses concern at the continuous discrimination of girls, children with disabilities, children belonging to ethnic minorities, children in poverty and street situations and children living with HIV/AIDS and with noma.

  • Ethiopia
  • A42 Institutions & policies - General
  • A46 National Plans of Action on Human Rights (or specific areas)
  • E42 Access to health-care (general)
  • E51 Right to education - General
  • F12 Discrimination against women
  • F31 Children: definition; general principles; protection
  • F32 Children: family environment and alternative care
  • F33 Children: protection against exploitation
  • F41 Persons with disabilities: definition, general principles
  • S03 SDG 3 - health
  • S10 SDG 10 - inequality
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
  • general
  • girls
  • minorities/ racial, ethnic, linguistic, religious or descent-based groups
Recommendations

24.The Committee recommends that the State party:

(a) Eliminate gender discrimination in all sectors, particularly in terms of access to education and health, address significant regional disparities in the promotion and protection of the rights of girls and adolescents and pay particular attention to girls with disabilities and girls suffering from physical and sexual abuse;

(b) Guarantee the respect and protection of the rights of children belonging to ethnic minorities and indigenous populations, investigate cases of violence and intimidation, particularly in conflict-affected regions, and cases of forceful relocation of children and their families from their traditional lands, ensure that perpetrators are held accountable and provide effective remedies to victims;

(c) Eliminate the de facto discrimination of all children with disabilities, including children with mental disabilities, as well as children living with noma, and children living with HIV/AIDS, and ensure their full inclusion in all spheres of life, and particularly in education and health care.

  • Ethiopia
  • A42 Institutions & policies - General
  • A46 National Plans of Action on Human Rights (or specific areas)
  • E42 Access to health-care (general)
  • E51 Right to education - General
  • F12 Discrimination against women
  • F31 Children: definition; general principles; protection
  • F32 Children: family environment and alternative care
  • F33 Children: protection against exploitation
  • F41 Persons with disabilities: definition, general principles
  • S03 SDG 3 - health
  • S10 SDG 10 - inequality
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
  • general
  • girls
  • minorities/ racial, ethnic, linguistic, religious or descent-based groups
Observations

Best interests of the child

25.The Committee welcomes the efforts made by the State party to ensure that the right of the child to have his or her best interests taken into account as a primary consideration is respected through the development of training programmes and the establishment of child-friendly benches and special investigation and prosecution teams. However, the Committee remains concerned that the best interests of the child are not adequately considered with respect to decisions concerning adoption and family reunification processes and legal proceedings, alternative care and early marriage.

  • Ethiopia
  • A41 Constitutional and legislative framework
  • A42 Institutions & policies - General
  • D8 Rights related to marriage & family
  • F31 Children: definition; general principles; protection
  • F32 Children: family environment and alternative care
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
  • general
Recommendations

26. In the light of its general comment No. 14 (2013) on the right of the child to have his or her best interests taken as a primary consideration, the Committee recommends that the State party ensure that this right is appropriately integrated and consistently applied in all policies, programmes and projects that have an impact on children, as well as in all legislative, administrative and judicial proceedings and decisions, in particular with respect to decisions concerning notably adoption and family reunification processes and alternative care.

  • Ethiopia
  • A41 Constitutional and legislative framework
  • A42 Institutions & policies - General
  • D8 Rights related to marriage & family
  • F31 Children: definition; general principles; protection
  • F32 Children: family environment and alternative care
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
  • general
Observations

Rights to life, survival and development

27.While the Committee notes that the State party is making efforts to tackle poverty, it is seriously concerned about the high rates of poverty affecting children, especially in rural areas, resulting in deprivation of children’s right to survival and development.

  • Ethiopia
  • E21 Right to an adequate standard of living - general
  • E25 Human rights & poverty
  • F31 Children: definition; general principles; protection
  • S01 SDG 1 - poverty
  • children
  • general
Recommendations

28. The Committee urges the State party to effectively implement a multidimensional approach to reducing child poverty, including by eliminating serious gaps in basic social services for children in the most vulnerable situations, as well as stimulate more informed dialogue on improving the effectiveness and efficiency of national expenditures on children, particularly for children in vulnerable situations, and on tackling inflation, which has undermined poverty reduction and overall economic development efforts.

  • Ethiopia
  • E21 Right to an adequate standard of living - general
  • E25 Human rights & poverty
  • F31 Children: definition; general principles; protection
  • S01 SDG 1 - poverty
  • children
  • general
Observations

29.The Committee is deeply concerned about the reports of excessive use of force, arbitrary arrests and detentions by the federal forces during the April 2014 demonstrations in the town of Ambo in Oromia, causing death and physical injuries to a number of children, in particular children belonging to ethnic minority groups.

  • Ethiopia
  • B51 Right to an effective remedy
  • B52 Impunity
  • D25 Prohibition of torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment
  • D33 Arbitrary arrest and detention
  • F31 Children: definition; general principles; protection
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
  • general
Recommendations

30. The Committee urges the State party to fully investigate all violations committed against children during the events of April 2014 and publicly report on its findings. It further recommends that the State party ensure that perpetrators of such violations are brought to justice, and that victims are provided with adequate redress and reparations.

  • Ethiopia
  • B51 Right to an effective remedy
  • B52 Impunity
  • D25 Prohibition of torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment
  • D33 Arbitrary arrest and detention
  • F31 Children: definition; general principles; protection
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
  • general
Observations

Respect for the views of the child

31.While noting the positive steps taken by the State party to implement the principle of respect for the views of the child, such as the children parliaments and the child rights clubs, the Committee remains concerned that traditions and cultural attitudes continue to limit the full implementation of the right of the child to be heard. Furthermore, the Committee notes with concern that, except for the specific provision in the Revised Family Code concerning the adoption process, there is no information on other legal provisions guaranteeing the respect of the right of the child to be heard in schools, judicial and administrative proceedings, alternative care settings and in the family, and there is no reference to programmes and initiatives for children in vulnerable situations.

  • Ethiopia
  • A41 Constitutional and legislative framework
  • A54 Awareness raising and dissemination
  • D51 Administration of justice & fair trial
  • D8 Rights related to marriage & family
  • E42 Access to health-care (general)
  • E51 Right to education - General
  • F31 Children: definition; general principles; protection
  • F32 Children: family environment and alternative care
  • F36 Children in street situations
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
  • general
  • persons with disabilities
  • refugees & asylum seekers
Recommendations

32. In the light of its general comment No. 12 (2009) on the right of the child to be heard, the Committee recommends that the State party take all appropriate measures to:

(a) Ensure the incorporation of this right into all laws, policies and programmes relating to children, particularly relating to education, health care, alternative care and administration of justice;

(b) Guarantee that children and young people are actively consulted and involved in the elaboration and implementation of policies and programmes affecting them, and pay particular attention to the active involvement of children in vulnerable situations, including children with disabilities, minority children, refugee children, and children in street situations;

(c) Develop awareness-raising programmes, including campaigns to promote the meaningful and empowered participation of all children in judicial proceedings, in the school, community, family and alternative care settings.

  • Ethiopia
  • A41 Constitutional and legislative framework
  • A54 Awareness raising and dissemination
  • D51 Administration of justice & fair trial
  • D8 Rights related to marriage & family
  • E42 Access to health-care (general)
  • E51 Right to education - General
  • F31 Children: definition; general principles; protection
  • F32 Children: family environment and alternative care
  • F36 Children in street situations
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
  • general
  • persons with disabilities
  • refugees & asylum seekers
Observations

D.Civil rights and freedoms (arts. 7, 8, and 13–17)

Birth registration

33.While welcoming the adoption of the Registration of Vital Events and National Identity Card Registration Proclamation No. 760/2012 and the establishment of structures responsible for coordinating and supporting the registration and implementation of birth registration pilot projects, the Committee remains concerned about the high rate of unregistered children and that only 5 per cent of children are reported to be registered in rural areas.

  • Ethiopia
  • A42 Institutions & policies - General
  • A6 Context, statistics, budget, civil society
  • A63 Budget and resources (for human rights implementation)
  • D6 Rights related to name, identity, nationality
  • D8 Rights related to marriage & family
  • F32 Children: family environment and alternative care
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
  • general
  • persons living in rural areas
Recommendations

34. The Committee urges the State party to:

(a) Adopt as a matter of priority a comprehensive birth registration policy and provide all the necessary human, financial and technical resources for its effective implementation, especially in rural areas;

(b) Continue to engage with development agencies and donors to mobilize the adequate technical and financial resources, and undertake an assessment on the barriers to birth registration and data collection.

  • Ethiopia
  • A42 Institutions & policies - General
  • A6 Context, statistics, budget, civil society
  • A63 Budget and resources (for human rights implementation)
  • D6 Rights related to name, identity, nationality
  • D8 Rights related to marriage & family
  • F32 Children: family environment and alternative care
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
  • general
  • persons living in rural areas
Observations

Freedom of opinion and expression

35.While noting the existence of different media in the State party, the Committee is concerned that the diversity of ethnic, social and cultural expression is not guaranteed to all children in the State party. The Committee is also concerned about the negative impact of the 2009 Anti-Terrorism Act on the rights of the child to freedom of expression.

  • Ethiopia
  • B31 Equality & non-discrimination
  • B8 Human rights & counter-terrorism
  • D43 Freedom of opinion and expression
  • F31 Children: definition; general principles; protection
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
  • general
  • media
Recommendations

36. The Committee urges the State party to ensure freedom of expression for all children without discrimination. The Committee also urges the State party to repeal all provisions of the 2009 Anti-Terrorism Act which infringe on the rights of the child to freedom of expression.

  • Ethiopia
  • B31 Equality & non-discrimination
  • B8 Human rights & counter-terrorism
  • D43 Freedom of opinion and expression
  • F31 Children: definition; general principles; protection
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
  • general
  • media
Observations

Freedom of thought, conscience and religion

37.While noting the peaceful and harmonious coexistence of several religious communities in the State party, the Committee is however concerned about the recent clashes that occurred between religious communities that resulted in the deaths of and injuries to many children.

  • Ethiopia
  • B51 Right to an effective remedy
  • B52 Impunity
  • D42 Freedom of thought, conscience and religion
  • F31 Children: definition; general principles; protection
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
  • general
Recommendations

38. The Committee urges the State party to take all necessary measures to prevent the reoccurrence of tensions between religious communities and to investigate these events with a view to prosecuting the perpetrators and providing compensation to child victims and their families.

  • Ethiopia
  • B51 Right to an effective remedy
  • B52 Impunity
  • D42 Freedom of thought, conscience and religion
  • F31 Children: definition; general principles; protection
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
  • general
Observations

Freedom of association and peaceful assembly

39.While noting the existence of several clubs, associations and centres of children and young people, the Committee is concerned that these clubs and associations are controlled by the Government. The Committee is also deeply concerned about the brutal repression of peaceful meetings of children and young people which took place in Addis Ababa in 2014, resulting in several deaths.

  • Ethiopia
  • B51 Right to an effective remedy
  • B52 Impunity
  • D44 Right to peaceful assembly
  • D45 Freedom of association
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
  • general
  • youth
Recommendations

40. The Committee recommends that the State party guarantee that children enjoy their rights to freedom of association and assembly without undue interference from the State. The Committee also urges the State party to investigate these violent events, to prosecute perpetrators and to provide compensation to the victims and their families.

  • Ethiopia
  • B51 Right to an effective remedy
  • B52 Impunity
  • D44 Right to peaceful assembly
  • D45 Freedom of association
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
  • general
  • youth
Observations

E.Violence against children (arts. 19, 24 (3), 28 (2), 34, 37 (a) and 39)

Corporal punishment

41.While welcoming the promotion of positive forms of discipline through the elaboration of awareness-raising and training programmes, targeting particularly professionals working with and for children, the Committee is concerned that the law does not expressly prohibit corporal punishment in the home and in the institutional child and day care centres where adults exercise parental authority over children. The Committee is also concerned that corporal punishment is still widely practiced and accepted in schools, the home and other settings.

  • Ethiopia
  • A41 Constitutional and legislative framework
  • A51 Human rights education - general
  • A53 Professional training in human rights
  • D29 Domestic violence
  • F31 Children: definition; general principles; protection
  • F32 Children: family environment and alternative care
  • F33 Children: protection against exploitation
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
  • general
  • persons with disabilities
Recommendations

42. With reference to the Committee’s general comment No. 8 (2006) on the right of the child to protection from corporal punishment and other cruel or degrading forms of punishment, and general comment No. 13 (2011) on the rights of the child to freedom from all forms of violence, the Committee recommends that the State party:

(a) Prohibit expressly all forms of corporal punishment in all settings, including in the home and alternative care, by revising the relevant provisions of the Revised Family and Criminal Codes;

(b) Further develop programmes promoting positive forms of discipline, in the home, in schools, alternative care and other institutions, by focusing particularly on children in vulnerable situations, including children with disabilities, children in street situations, children deprived of parental care, children living in poverty and children in conflict with law.

  • Ethiopia
  • A41 Constitutional and legislative framework
  • A51 Human rights education - general
  • A53 Professional training in human rights
  • D29 Domestic violence
  • F31 Children: definition; general principles; protection
  • F32 Children: family environment and alternative care
  • F33 Children: protection against exploitation
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
  • general
  • persons with disabilities
Observations

Sexual exploitation and abuse

43.The Committee notes as positive the adoption of national action plans, the establishment of multisectoral coordination bodies to combat violence against women and children and child sexual abuse, as well as the creation of a specialized investigation unit and the development and implementation of awareness-raising and training programmes. However, the Committee remains deeply concerned at the high levels of child sexual abuse in the State party and at the absence of information on specific strategies and initiatives targeting children at particular risk of becoming victims of sexual abuse. The Committee is also concerned at the large proportion of girls who experience forced sexual initiation, particularly within the context of early marriage and sexual harassment, and regrets the significantly low reporting rates of child abuse, including sexual abuse, the absence of mechanisms to assess and monitor the extent of such violations, lack of prosecution and conviction and the lack of adequate rehabilitation and reintegration services for victims.

  • Ethiopia
  • A45 National Human Rights Institution (NHRI)
  • A46 National Plans of Action on Human Rights (or specific areas)
  • A53 Professional training in human rights
  • A54 Awareness raising and dissemination
  • A6 Context, statistics, budget, civil society
  • A61 Cooperation with civil society
  • A63 Budget and resources (for human rights implementation)
  • B52 Impunity
  • D28 Gender-based violence
  • D8 Rights related to marriage & family
  • E42 Access to health-care (general)
  • F13 Violence against women
  • F31 Children: definition; general principles; protection
  • F32 Children: family environment and alternative care
  • F33 Children: protection against exploitation
  • F36 Children in street situations
  • S05 SDG 5 - gender equality and women's empowerment
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
  • educational staff
  • general
  • girls
  • judges, lawyers and prosecutors
  • law enforcement / police officials
  • refugees & asylum seekers
  • social workers
  • women
Recommendations

44. The Committee urges the State party to:

(a) Further develop and implement awareness-raising programmes, including campaigns, in close collaboration with international donor, agencies, civil society and non-governmental organizations, in order to prevent and eliminate gender-based violence, including sexual abuse and exploitation, and pay particular attention to the issue of forced sexual initiation;

(b) Design and implement strategies and programmes combating sexual exploitation and abuse of children and targeting specifically children in vulnerable situations, including girls, children in street situations, refugee children, children with disabilities, and children in school, family-like and alternative care settings, and extend those strategies and programmes, particularly to rural and remote areas;

(c) Ensure that the institutional bodies responsible for the monitoring, investigation and prosecution of cases of sexual violence and abuse are provided with adequate human, technical and financial resources in order to effectively discharge their respective mandates and are easily accessible by child victims;

(d) Establish an efficient system of data collection to monitor and assess the extent of the problem;

(e) Provide all professional groups working with and for children, including teachers, judges, health professionals and care workers, with adequate training, carry out sensitization programmes for children to detect the risks of sexual violence and establish specialized centres for rehabilitation and reintegration of victims of sexual violence and abuse, particularly in the rural and remote areas.

  • Ethiopia
  • A45 National Human Rights Institution (NHRI)
  • A46 National Plans of Action on Human Rights (or specific areas)
  • A53 Professional training in human rights
  • A54 Awareness raising and dissemination
  • A6 Context, statistics, budget, civil society
  • A61 Cooperation with civil society
  • A63 Budget and resources (for human rights implementation)
  • B52 Impunity
  • D28 Gender-based violence
  • D8 Rights related to marriage & family
  • E42 Access to health-care (general)
  • F13 Violence against women
  • F31 Children: definition; general principles; protection
  • F32 Children: family environment and alternative care
  • F33 Children: protection against exploitation
  • F36 Children in street situations
  • S05 SDG 5 - gender equality and women's empowerment
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
  • educational staff
  • general
  • girls
  • judges, lawyers and prosecutors
  • law enforcement / police officials
  • refugees & asylum seekers
  • social workers
  • women
Observations

Freedom of the child from all forms of violence

45.While welcoming the positive steps taken by the State party to address the issue of child abuse and neglect, notably through the elaboration and implementation of training and educational programmes, the Committee is deeply concerned that violence against children still persists in the school, home and alternative care settings, and deeply regrets the absence of information on the number of investigations and prosecutions of such cases.

  • Ethiopia
  • A2 Cooperation with human rights mechanisms and institutions
  • A24 Cooperation with special procedures
  • A53 Professional training in human rights
  • A54 Awareness raising and dissemination
  • A61 Cooperation with civil society
  • A63 Budget and resources (for human rights implementation)
  • B52 Impunity
  • B53 Support to victims and witnesses
  • D25 Prohibition of torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment
  • D51 Administration of justice & fair trial
  • F13 Violence against women
  • F31 Children: definition; general principles; protection
  • F32 Children: family environment and alternative care
  • S03 SDG 3 - health
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
  • general
  • girls
  • judges, lawyers and prosecutors
  • law enforcement / police officials
  • medical staff
  • refugees & asylum seekers
  • social workers
Recommendations

46. In the light of its general comment No. 13 (2001) on the right of the child to freedom from all forms of violence, the Committee recommends that the State party take urgent measures in order to:

(a) Protect all children from all forms of physical and mental violence, in particular girls, children with disabilities, refugee children, and children living in street situations, poverty and in rural and remote areas;

(b) Establish effective procedures and mechanisms to receive, monitor and investigate cases of child abuse and neglect, to ensure proper prosecution of perpetrators and to guarantee that abused children are not victimized in legal proceedings;

(c) Eliminate violence against children, in particular girls, in school and on the way to or from school, through the establishment of specialized school protection committees with the participation of students and teachers;

(d) Train teachers, law enforcement officials, care workers, judges and health professionals on how to effectively identify, report and manage ill-treatment and abuse cases;

(e) Engage closely with non-governmental organizations and local communities for the elaboration and implementation of educational programmes to eliminate the cultural acceptance of child abuse and neglect, and to raise awareness about legal protection measures;

(f) Further strengthen the framework of prevention, physical and psychological rehabilitation and reintegration of child victims, notably through the establishment of specialized centres and shelters, and to ensure that adequate human, technical and financial resources are made available;

(g) Cooperate with the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Violence against Children, special rapporteurs and other relevant United Nations institutions.

  • Ethiopia
  • A2 Cooperation with human rights mechanisms and institutions
  • A24 Cooperation with special procedures
  • A53 Professional training in human rights
  • A54 Awareness raising and dissemination
  • A61 Cooperation with civil society
  • A63 Budget and resources (for human rights implementation)
  • B52 Impunity
  • B53 Support to victims and witnesses
  • D25 Prohibition of torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment
  • D51 Administration of justice & fair trial
  • F13 Violence against women
  • F31 Children: definition; general principles; protection
  • F32 Children: family environment and alternative care
  • S03 SDG 3 - health
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
  • general
  • girls
  • judges, lawyers and prosecutors
  • law enforcement / police officials
  • medical staff
  • refugees & asylum seekers
  • social workers
Observations

Harmful practices

47.While acknowledging the commitment of the State party to eliminate harmful traditional practices through legislative reforms and awareness-raising campaigns, the Committee is seriously concerned that the relevant legal provisions prohibiting and criminalizing such practices are not adequately enforced, as shown by the very high number of children, particularly girls, subjected to female genital mutilation and cutting in all its forms (cliteridectomy, excision, infibulation, cauterization or scraping), as well as forced, early and promissory marriages and marriages by abduction, and the lack of criminal proceedings against those performing those practices.

  • Ethiopia
  • A41 Constitutional and legislative framework
  • A54 Awareness raising and dissemination
  • A61 Cooperation with civil society
  • B31 Equality & non-discrimination
  • D28 Gender-based violence
  • D8 Rights related to marriage & family
  • F13 Violence against women
  • F31 Children: definition; general principles; protection
  • F33 Children: protection against exploitation
  • S05 SDG 5 - gender equality and women's empowerment
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • general
  • girls
Recommendations

48. In the light of its previous recommendation (CRC/C/ETH/CO/3, para. 60) and its general comment No. 18 on harmful practices, the Committee urges the State party to:

(a) Intensify programmes targeting female genital mutilation and cutting practices, particularly in the regions of high prevalence, and strengthen its efforts to eliminate social pressure and behaviours that perpetuate this practice, through targeted sensitization campaigns at the local level;

(b) Strictly enforce the existing legislation prohibiting harmful traditional practices and ensure that the perpetrators of such practices are prosecuted and convicted;

(c) Criminalize marital rape and prosecute and punish such acts;

(d) Lift all legal and policy barriers that prohibit civil society organizations from working in the areas of prevention of and awareness-raising on female genital mutilation and cutting;

(e) Strictly, widely and uniformly enforce the provision in the Revised Family Code setting 18 years of age for marriage for both girls and boys;

(f) Combat negative attitudes against and stigmatization of girls and boys who are not married at a young age, provide support to civil society and community organizations’ initiatives in their efforts to raise awareness about the negative effects of forced and early marriage and provide support to victims of such practices.

  • Ethiopia
  • A41 Constitutional and legislative framework
  • A54 Awareness raising and dissemination
  • A61 Cooperation with civil society
  • B31 Equality & non-discrimination
  • D28 Gender-based violence
  • D8 Rights related to marriage & family
  • F13 Violence against women
  • F31 Children: definition; general principles; protection
  • F33 Children: protection against exploitation
  • S05 SDG 5 - gender equality and women's empowerment
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • general
  • girls
Observations

F.Family environment and alternative care (arts. 5, 9–11, 18 (1–2), 20–21, 25 and 27 (4))

Children deprived of a family environment

49.While acknowledging the steps taken by the State party to address extreme poverty, particularly in rural and remote areas, and to establish a regulatory framework on alternative child care, the Committee remains deeply concerned at the significantly high number of children deprived of a family environment and at the absence of a national strategy and action plan focusing on alternative family and community-based options for children deprived of a family environment. The Committee also regrets the absence of detailed statistical information on children placed in different types of alternative child care, including community-based care services, and particularly regarding children in vulnerable situations.

  • Ethiopia
  • A46 National Plans of Action on Human Rights (or specific areas)
  • A6 Context, statistics, budget, civil society
  • A62 Statistics and indicators
  • A63 Budget and resources (for human rights implementation)
  • B51 Right to an effective remedy
  • B53 Support to victims and witnesses
  • D8 Rights related to marriage & family
  • E21 Right to an adequate standard of living - general
  • E25 Human rights & poverty
  • F31 Children: definition; general principles; protection
  • F32 Children: family environment and alternative care
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
  • general
Recommendations

50. Drawing the State party’s attention to the Guidelines for the Alternative Care of Children (General Assembly resolution 64/142, annex) of 20 December 2009, the Committee recommends that the State party:

(a) Support single-parent and vulnerable families and develop policies and tools for the purpose of reducing reliance on institutional care;

(b) Elaborate and develop a comprehensive strategy on family and community-based alternative care for children deprived of family environment while giving due weight to the child’s best interests;

(c) Ensure regular and systematic evaluation of placement of children in alternative care and the quality of the provided services and establish accessible channels for reporting, monitoring and remedying the maltreatment of children;

(d) Provide adequate human, technical and financial resources to alternative care institutions and child protection services in order to facilitate children’s rehabilitation and reintegration;

(e) Develop a disaggregated data collection system on children placed in alternative care institutions, as well as on children reunified with their family.

  • Ethiopia
  • A46 National Plans of Action on Human Rights (or specific areas)
  • A6 Context, statistics, budget, civil society
  • A62 Statistics and indicators
  • A63 Budget and resources (for human rights implementation)
  • B51 Right to an effective remedy
  • B53 Support to victims and witnesses
  • D8 Rights related to marriage & family
  • E21 Right to an adequate standard of living - general
  • E25 Human rights & poverty
  • F31 Children: definition; general principles; protection
  • F32 Children: family environment and alternative care
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
  • general
Observations

Adoption

51.The Committee remains concerned at the lack of disaggregated statistical information on intercountry and domestic adoptions and the absence of an independent central authority competent to oversee child providers and adoption agencies and monitor and report on domestic and intercountry adoptions. Although the Committee notes the delegation’s comments that no adoptions have taken place of children while in utero, it is concerned about the provision of the Family Code that allows for the adoption of children who are “merely conceived”.

  • Ethiopia
  • A12 Acceptance of international norms
  • A41 Constitutional and legislative framework
  • D8 Rights related to marriage & family
  • F31 Children: definition; general principles; protection
  • F32 Children: family environment and alternative care
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
  • general
Recommendations

52. The Committee recommends that the State party:

(a) Develop and implement a comprehensive framework on domestic and intercountry adoptions, by paying particular attention to the child’s best interests;

(b) Ensure that the views of child are always heard and respected in adoption cases;

(c) Take appropriate measures in order to enhance the supervision and oversight of child providers and adoption agencies;

(d) Encourage family and community-based domestic solutions instead of intercountry adoptions;

(e) Repeal the provision of the Family Code that allows for the adoption of children who are “merely conceived”;

(f) Ratify the Hague Convention of 29 May 1993 on Protection of Children and Cooperation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption.

  • Ethiopia
  • A12 Acceptance of international norms
  • A41 Constitutional and legislative framework
  • D8 Rights related to marriage & family
  • F31 Children: definition; general principles; protection
  • F32 Children: family environment and alternative care
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
  • general
Observations

G.Disability, basic health and welfare (arts. 6, 18 (3), 23, 24, 26, 27 (1–3) and 33)

Children with disabilities

53.While welcoming the ratification of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the commitment expressed by the State party to address the issue of rehabilitation and integration of persons with disabilities, the Committee remains deeply concerned at the persistence of negative attitudes and discrimination against children with disabilities, and at the fact that the vast majority of children with disabilities are deprived of education and face obstacles in accessing appropriate social and health-care services. The Committee is also concerned at the lack of reliable disaggregated data and the absence of specific information on initiatives and programmes for the rehabilitation and reintegration of children with disabilities, particularly for those children suffering from multiple and intersecting forms of discrimination.

  • Ethiopia
  • A41 Constitutional and legislative framework
  • A53 Professional training in human rights
  • A6 Context, statistics, budget, civil society
  • A61 Cooperation with civil society
  • A62 Statistics and indicators
  • B31 Equality & non-discrimination
  • E21 Right to an adequate standard of living - general
  • E42 Access to health-care (general)
  • E51 Right to education - General
  • E54 technical and vocational education
  • F41 Persons with disabilities: definition, general principles
  • F42 Persons with disabilities: accessibility, mobility
  • S03 SDG 3 - health
  • S04 SDG 4 - education
  • S10 SDG 10 - inequality
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
  • general
  • judges, lawyers and prosecutors
  • law enforcement / police officials
  • medical staff
  • persons with disabilities
  • social workers
Recommendations

54. In the light of article 23 of the Convention and of its general comment No. 9 (2006) on the rights of children with disabilities, the Committee urges the State party to adopt a human rights-based approach to disability and specifically recommends that it:

(a) Take urgent measures to elaborate and implement specific programmes for children and young people with disabilities aimed at enhancing their social inclusion, and ensure in particular their access to quality inclusive education, vocational training, social and health services;

(b) Undertake, in close collaboration with non-governmental organizations and local communities, awareness-raising programmes, including campaigns, on eliminating discrimination against children with disabilities, and particularly against children with disabilities who suffer from multiple forms of discrimination, such as girls, children living in poverty, children living in rural and remote areas, children living with HIV/AIDS, children in street situations, child members of ethnic minorities and indigenous populations and refugee children;

(c) Establish a data collection system on children with disabilities, focusing on the type of disability, in order to facilitate the elaboration, development and implementation of relevant policies and programmes;

(d) Design and develop training programmes for all professional groups working with and for children and young people with disabilities, including teachers, law enforcement officials, care workers, judges and health professionals.

  • Ethiopia
  • A41 Constitutional and legislative framework
  • A53 Professional training in human rights
  • A6 Context, statistics, budget, civil society
  • A61 Cooperation with civil society
  • A62 Statistics and indicators
  • B31 Equality & non-discrimination
  • E21 Right to an adequate standard of living - general
  • E42 Access to health-care (general)
  • E51 Right to education - General
  • E54 technical and vocational education
  • F41 Persons with disabilities: definition, general principles
  • F42 Persons with disabilities: accessibility, mobility
  • S03 SDG 3 - health
  • S04 SDG 4 - education
  • S10 SDG 10 - inequality
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • children
  • general
  • judges, lawyers and prosecutors
  • law enforcement / police officials
  • medical staff
  • persons with disabilities
  • social workers
Observations

Health and health services

55.The Committee welcomes the increase in the allocation of resources, the reduction of maternal, infant and under-five mortality rates, the extension of immunization coverage and breastfeeding and the reduction of malaria. The Committee remains, however, concerned that the per capita spending on basic health is well below the internationally accepted levels and deeply regrets the persistence of regional disparities in the provision of health services and that the rates of malnutrition, infant mortality, under-five mortality, noma prevalence and maternal mortality remain high.

  • Ethiopia
  • A2 Cooperation with human rights mechanisms and institutions
  • A42 Institutions & policies - General
  • A53 Professional training in human rights
  • A54 Awareness raising and dissemination
  • A63 Budget and resources (for human rights implementation)
  • E22 Right to food
  • E42 Access to health-care (general)
  • E44 Health awareness raising, access to information
  • F31 Children: definition; general principles; protection
  • S02 SDG 2 - hunger and food security
  • S04 SDG 4 - education
  • S05 SDG 5 - gender equality and women's empowerment
  • S10 SDG 10 - inequality
  • S16 SDG 16 - peace, justice and strong institutions
  • general
  • persons living in rural areas
  • women